Fall Flu disease
|November 12, 2012||Posted by admin under cold, cough, flu|
Influenza is an acute, viral, very contagious respiratory illness with a high fever, muscle pain, headache and throat. Most often occurs in the form of an epidemic in the autumn and winter.
Influenza viruses cause 3 types: A, B, and C. The majority of cases of influenza is responsible influenza A virus, which causes a more severe illness. Influenza virus type C disease is the cause of light, but is very rare.
The infection is transmitted by respiratory droplets through coughing or namely mucus from the nose. It is worth remembering that a person infected with the virus is excreted in the period from 7 days before onset of the disease, up to two weeks after resolution of symptoms. Due to the high genetic variability of the influenza virus and the relatively short afetr infection resistance, the flu can get sick many times throughout their lives.
In the twentieth century there were three major influenza pandemics that decimated the population of the world. During World War I, between 1918 – 1919 was the largest, by far, the epidemic of influenza known as the “Spanish”. Describes the approximately 500 million cases and as many as 50 million deaths because of it. Subsequent outbreaks of somewhat smaller scale took place in Asia in 1957. (Flu “Asian”) and then in the years 1968 to 1970 (Hong Kong flu).
Today, in 2003, aroused tremendous anxiety epidemic influenza in birds. The virus of “bird flu” was isolated in 1997 in Hong Kong and is the most dangerous type A virus to humans is the H5N1 strain that causes flu-like symptoms, but have a significant virulence, resulting in a higher percentage of deaths. It is believed that since 2003, with about 220 infected people died in the world 130th
According to the WHO, ill with the flu each year about 300 to 990 million people of which about 500,000 to 1 million people die.
Flu or cold?
The most characteristic symptoms of influenza are high fever up to 39 ° C (up to 41oC), chills, muscle aches and headaches, dry paroxysmal cough, accompanied by bleeding from the nose, eye discharge, weakness. Less common gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and occasional diarrhea. These symptoms are not unique to influenza virus infection. The same problems occur in the course of infection by other viruses such as adenovirus, RS virus in children and some bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia pneumophila.
In patients with a small state running fever rhinitis and symptoms of upper respiratory tract diagnosis of influenza is unlikely. These patients typically have a so-called: cold, which is also a viral disease, but milder.
Persistent runny nose?
Persistent runny nose and watery eyes can accompany influenza infection, although it is not very typical of her. More often than with other types of infections, bleeding from the nose. If hay is extended, and problems are severe should be taken into account coexistence of other diseases such as secondary bacterial infection, sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis mucosa. In this case, next to the symptomatic treatment of the underlying disease should be treated.
The diagnosis of influenza
In the diagnosis of influenza epidemics is placed on the basis of the symptoms reported by the patient. In cases of doubt, and demanding a clear diagnosis can be made by downloading the virological tests for testing swabs from the throat, nose, as well as respiratory secretions, cerebrospinal fluid. The results of these tests receives over two hours. Serological antibody identifying influenza viruses require blood tests twice at an interval of two weeks. Demonstration of fourfold increase in antibody titer is evidence of the completion of the disease. The result of this study we get the patient during the recovery period.
Due to the high cost of research, low availability and limited use in making decisions about treatment, these tests are not used in everyday medical practice.
Who’s Afraid of the flu?
Especially dangerous course of influenza can affect people over 65 years of age and with underlying chronic cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis), with renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, patients with neurological worsening respiratory function, immunodeficiency states, eg patients after organ transplants, patients infected with HIV or chemotherapy. A special group of children and young people under 18 years of age receiving chronic aspirin as if flu syndrome increases the risk of Rey.
Flu symptoms usually disappear after 7 days. If you persist to suspect the occurrence of complications. Complications on only about 1 to 5% of patients, often burdened with additional diseases. They are usually bacterial complications of streptococcal and staphylococcal such as pneumonia. But they can also develop complications resulting from damage to organs such as the influenza virus otitis media, myocarditis, viral pneumonia, inflammation of the spinal cord, brain, and meningitis – meningitis.